Michelle Kaffenberger is Deputy Director of Research for the RISE Programme at the Blavatnik School of Government, University of Oxford. She leads research, impact, and engagement focused on improving education system effectiveness and learning outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. Previously, she was a Senior Research Advisor with the World Bank, focusing on financial inclusion, social protection systems, and international education. She has designed, led, or advised on dozens of quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods empirical research studies. Michelle has also served as research adviser and consultant to the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the United Nations, the Asian Development Bank, and a variety of private sector and nonprofit organisations. Previously she was research manager and lead analyst at InterMedia, an international development research organisation. She began her career establishing a new base of operations for an international nonprofit in Darjeeling, India.