University of Dar es Salaam
An Analysis of the Basic Education Curriculum in Tanzania: The Integration, Scope and Sequence of 21st Century Skills
This study generated evidence on whether or not the basic education curriculum is geared towards developing problem-solving, collaboration, creativity, and critical thinking skills among those who graduate from the basic education system. It was informed by a mixed methodology research approach. The data were collected using interviews and documentary review. The findings reveal that the intention to promote 21st century skills through the basic education system in Tanzania is clear, as it is stated in various policy documents, including the Education for Self-Reliance philosophy, the 2014 Education and Training Policy and the National Curriculum Framework for Basic and Teacher Education. Furthermore, these skills are clearly reflected in every curriculum and syllabus document, yet those who graduate from the basic and advanced secondary levels are claimed to lack these skills. This suggests a variation between the enacted and the intended curriculum. We conclude that certain system elements are weak, and hence threaten the effective implementation of the curriculum. These weak system elements include limited finance, a teacher shortage, and the lack of a teacher continuous professional development programme. This research suggests that due consideration should be given to provision of the resources required for the successful implementation of the curriculum. These include allocation of sufficient funds, the employment of more teachers and the provision of regular continuous professional development for teachers as a way to strengthen the system elements that we identified.
Komba, A. and Shukia, R. 2023. An Analysis of the Basic Education Curriculum in Tanzania: The Integration, Scope and Sequence of 21st Century Skills. RISE Working Paper Series. 23/129. https://doi.org/10.35489/BSG-RISE-WP_2023/129