Education is in crisis, in the sense that hundreds of millions of kids are currently in school who will probably never acquire functional literacy or numeracy. More and more, the rhetoric from aid agencies is focused on the need to improve the quality of teaching, and indeed reform whole systems. This emerging consensus is generally skeptical of increased spending.
More than 60 percent of the national education budget in Indonesia is used to improve teachers’ welfare. The budget is used in almost 100 percent of all regions in the country; however, raising salaries and providing teacher allowances do not necessarily improve the quality of learning or the number of school graduates.